What is cervicitis? What are the symptoms and treatment methods?

What is cervicitis? What are the symptoms and treatment methods?

Cervicitis, known as a wound in the cervix among the people, is one of the most common gynecological problems. More than half of women will get this disease at some point in their lives. Any sexually active woman, regardless of age, is a suitable candidate for cervicitis. Most women with groin pain and vaginal discharge will have cervicitis alone or in combination with another disease.

How is cervicitis diagnosed?

Cervicitis , that is, inflammation of the cervix, is a result of the body’s normally functioning defense mechanisms. When there is injury, irritation or infection in any tissue, white blood cells, that is, white blood cells, migrate to that area and blood flow in this area increases. When this happens on the cervix, the normally light pink cervix becomes red and swollen. This can be seen as a wound on examination. Although the diagnosis of cervicitis is usually made by gynecological examination, some additional tests may be required to be sure of the diagnosis and to make a differential diagnosis.

What are the causes of cervicitis?

Successful treatment of cervicitis is related to the identification of its underlying cause. If the cause is a simple irritant, not using this substance will solve the problem. If the underlying cause is an infection, proper treatment of this infection will also solve the problem of cervicitis. The three most important microorganisms causing cervicitis are chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomonas. Apart from this, some allergic substances can also cause this condition.

What are the symptoms of cervicitis?

It is difficult for a person to suspect self-cervicitis because its symptoms are similar to many other diseases and do not cause specific complaints. It is usually noticed by a gynecological examination performed for another reason.

In general terms, cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix tissue. It is most likely due to an infection, but can sometimes occur after irritation or trauma. The first symptom of cervicitis is vaginal discharge that occurs in the period following the end of menstruation. Other symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, itching, burning in the vagina, pain during intercourse, burning when urinating, and lower back pain. In mild cases, there may be no symptoms, but as the event progresses, a foul-smelling and inflammatory discharge appears. A prolonged and untreated cervicitis can impair mucus production, impair the entry of sperm into the cervical canal and lead to infertility. A pregnant woman with cervicitis is also at risk of miscarriage and preterm delivery. Postnatal lung and eye infections are more common in babies born to such mothers.

What are the additional cervicitis examinations?

Biopsy:  If the cervix looks extremely abnormal, a biopsy of the cervix can be taken under local anesthesia. During the procedure, samples are taken from suspicious areas. If a single area cannot be identified, a biopsy is taken at the 3, 6, 9 and 12 o’clock positions and sent for pathological examination. Colposcopy: It is the examination of the cervix under the light with the help of an optical instrument similar to a magnifying glass. In order to reveal suspicious areas more easily, the cervix is ​​wiped with a number of chemicals before colposcopy and then painted. The place where the biopsy will be taken is determined according to the differences in dye retention of the tissue. With colposcopy, the structures of the capillaries in the cervix are also evaluated and it is determined whether there is abnormal vascularity. These vascular changes are important in distinguishing between cervicitis and malignant diseases.

Smear:  It is used to screen for cervical infection and early cervical cancer. Smear is an extremely simple but equally important test that every woman should have once a year.

Cervicitis treatment

If the condition of cervicitis is prolonged and there is no regression in the picture of cervicitis despite the treatment of the underlying cause, some minor surgical interventions can be performed to destroy the abnormal cells in the cervix. The most commonly used of these are cauterization and cryotherapy. Cauterization is destruction with the help of heat. Among the people, this process is called wound burning. Cryotherapy is the freezing of abnormal tissues with the help of liquid carbon dioxide or nitrogen. This is also called wound freezing among the people. Finally, the destruction of cells with laser can be applied.

Cautery:  It is the oldest and most classical method in chronic cervicitis. Heat is generated by passing an electric current through the tip of a pen-shaped probe. It is the treatment that should be preferred last among the 3 methods. There may be slight pain during the procedure. The scar tissue formed after the procedure may cause blockages in the cervical canal.

Cryotherapy:  It has some advantages over cautery. It causes less pain, and allows a more controlled tissue destruction. It provides less scar tissue formation. Therefore, it does not cause narrowing in the cervical canal. It is applied with a gun-shaped device. The places where the tip of this gun touches freeze. The procedure is performed without any anesthesia. It is a very simple task that takes about 10 minutes.

Laser:  It is the destruction of tissues by laser. It has no advantage over cryotherapy.

Regardless of the treatment method, a copious watery vaginal discharge is seen for 1-2 weeks following the destruction of the cells. During this period, there may be bleeding in the form of spotting, so sexual intercourse should be avoided for 2 weeks after the procedure. Complete recovery can take up to 6-8 weeks.

What precautions should be taken to prevent cervicitis?

  • Some simple measures are sufficient to prevent cervicitis or to ensure that it is diagnosed at an early stage.
  • Do not engage in relationships with people you are not sure of.
  • See your doctor right away if your partner has symptoms of gonorrhea.
  • Do not delay the examination in the presence of vaginal discharge
  • Even if you do not have any complaints, undergo a gynecological examination once a year
  • Do not use irritants such as scented tampons and deodorants.